Inspired by the book by Ignaty Dyakov “The Story Sensation”

Discussing the chapter of the book about clothes and styles with my students makes me come up with a list of the adjectives commonly used to describe clothes – ОДЕЖДА. 

So, here we are.

  1. ​сти́льная (мо́дная, в хоро́шем сти́ле) - stylish

  2. элега́нтная (со вку́сом, изы́сканная) - elegant

  3. дорога́я (сто́ит до́рого, мно́го де́нег) - expensive

  4. дешёвая (недорога́я, сто́ит дёшево) - cheap, inexpensive

  5. практи́чная (удо́бная, недорога́я, подходя́щая) - practical

  6. удо́бная (в э́той оде́жде комфо́ртно) - comfortable

  7. опря́тная (чи́стая и аккура́тная) - neat

  8. краси́вая (прия́тная для глаз; на таку́ю оде́жду прия́тно смотре́ть) - beautiful

  9. я́ркая (интенси́вного цве́та, я́рких цвето́в: жёлтая, кра́сная, я́рк...

 

I agree with the poster that there is no such toast as "На здоровье". Why are НА ЗДОРОВЬЕ and ЗА ЗДОРОВЬЕ so misused, and what is actually the difference between these two prepositional phrases?


On the one hand, you say За здоровье! if you want to propose a toast in Russian. It means "To your health!" 

 

Here are a few more examples of the toasts: 

 

За встречу! = To our meeting! 

За успех! = To success!

За новую работу! = To the new job!

 

On the other hand, you say "На здоровье!" when you offer food to your guests, for example, Кушайте на здоровье! (Eat for your health). 

 

Also, when someone thanks you for food, you can say "На здоровье!" instead of "Пожалуйста". 
- Спасибо!
- На здоровье!

(Thank you. You're welcome.)

 

This is all very simple if you know the difference, right?

 

The word CLASS looks like a true cognate of КЛАСС, but, unfortunately, these words can act like false cognates in many usages. Even some native Russian speakers, who live in an English-speaking country, sometimes use the word КЛАСС literally as CLASS. You can often hear students saying:

Это неинтере́сный класс. (It's not an interesting class.)

У меня́ три кла́сса в э́том семе́стре. (I have three classes this semester.) 

Я должна́ идти́. У меня́ сейча́с класс. (I have to go. I have class now.)

Of course, a Russian speaker, especially the one who is familiar with English, will understand you. However, your vocabulary  will not be authentic Russian, and you might sound like a foreigner. For that reason, why not clarify how to use this word  properly.

CLASS

  • курс, предме́т = course, s...

If you translate the English sentence "I traveled to Russia last year." like "Я путеше́ствовал(а) в Росси́ю в про́шлом году́.", I'm afraid, the sentence will be incorrect. In order to avoid the misuse of the verb "to travel" in Russian, find out how the Russian verb ПУТЕШЕСТВОВАТЬ is used in context. 

  • путеше́ствовать по ми́ру (по России, по Америке, по Европе) = to travel around the world (across Russia, America, Europe) 

Моя мечта - путешествовать по миру. = My dream is to travel the world.

  • ча́сто путеше́ствовать = to travel frequently (a lot)

Я часто путешествовала по России, когда там жила. А теперь я путешествую по Америке. = I used to travel a lot across Rusia when living there. Nowadays, I travel across America.  

  • путеше́ствать би́знес-кла́ссом...

How would you translate this sentence into Russian “I don’t know if I speak Russian well?” If you turn to the Google Translate for help, it will possibly give you the answer like this: “Я не знаю, если я говорю по-русски хорошо.” Sorry, Google Translate, no offence, but this sentence is incorrect.  The correct answer is “Я не зна́ю, говорю́ ли я по-ру́сски хорошо́.

Let’s give the respectful translation device another chance - have it translate the sentence “I will speak Russian well if I study much.” This time, it comes up with the following answer “Я бу́ду говори́ть по-ру́сски хорошо́, е́сли бу́ду мно́го занима́ться.” Actually, the machine translates the word IF correctly – ЕСЛИ. (The sentence is already corrected by me since Google Translate is not really familiar with the peculia...

When it comes to talking about watching TV, the words програ́мма and переда́ча are often misused. The matter is that the Russian word програ́мма is not program but a list of shows (on radio or TV), a channel, or a schedule. On the other hand, the equivalent of the English program on TV or radio broadcasted would be the word переда́ча. We just need to remember that the Russian програ́мма and the English program are false cognates.

 

Using the words in context might help to see the difference:

 

Что по второ́й програ́мме? = What is on the 2nd channel?

У тебя́ есть програ́мма переда́ч на сего́дня? = Do you have a program schedule for today?

Музыка́льные  и литерату́рные переда́чи мо́жно посмотре́ть на кана́ле «Культу́ра». = Musical and literary programs could be watched on “Kultura” channel.

Сейча...

The words receipt and реце́пт could be confusing for both Russian and English learners: they sound like cognates, but, actually don’t have much in common. The English receipt has a meaning of чек (a receipt, in a store) or счёт (a bill, in a restaurant).

  • Касси́р вы́дал чек и сда́чу. = The cashier gave a receipt and change.

  • Счёт, пож́алуйста! = Can I have a bill, please?

 

The Russian word реце́пт, on the other hand, has the following meanings:

 

1)   a prescription as a written message from a doctor that officially tells someone to use a medicine, glasses, therapy, etc.

 

  • реце́пт врача́ = doctor’s prescription

  • по реце́пту врача́ = with doctor’s prescription

  • реце́пт на лека́рство / на очки = medicine /glasses prescription

  • выпи́сывать / вы́писать реце́пт = to p...

Replacing то́же and та́кже with each other is one of the most frequent mistakes Russian learners make. These two words have the same meaning too or also, but they are not interchangeable and used differently. This is how to use them correctly in the sentences.

First, take a look at the English sentences in 2 situations:

  1. I like comedies. I also like musicals. / I like comedies, too.

  2. I like comedies. My friends also like comedies. / My friends like comedies, too.

The sentences in both situations (1 and 2) are grammatically correct. Also and too can be equally used in the English sentences like those. However, if you want to deliver the same idea in Russian, you have to think about the choices of тоже and также.

  1. Я люблю́ коме́дии. Я та́кже люблю́ мю́зиклы.

  2. Я люблю́ коме́дии...

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